Disaster Management System in Indonesia

  • Syugiarto Syugiarto Department of Public Administration Sekolah Tinggi IlmuAdministrasi Pembangunan Palu, Indonesia
Keywords: Natural Disaster, Disaster Management System, Outcome, Impact


This study aims to determine the disaster management system in Indonesia and focuses on the outcomes and impacts given to the community. There are three steps used in looking at the disaster management system in Indonesia, including: 1). look at natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) that occurred in Indonesia in a span of 20 years (2001 – 2021); 2). look at the disaster management system in Indonesia using 3 out of 4 disaster management cycles (mitigation, preparedness and response); 3). see the outcome and impact of disaster management regulations using a performance information framework. The method used in this research is library research. The results found in this study are that the disaster management system in Indonesia has not been running well in terms of outcomes and impact on the community. Within a span of 12 years (2009 – 2021) after the disaster management regulation was made, it has not been able to minimize the loss of life and financial losses experienced by the community. The inputs, processes and outputs of regulations and disaster management systems are in accordance with what has been conceptualized. But, the implementation process as well as the lack of disaster management regulations are the things that cause the outcomes and impacts cannot be realized and cannot protect the community from the threat of earthquakes and tsunamis.


Download data is not yet available.


[1]. Wiarto G. Tanggap Darurat Bencana Alam. Yogyakarta. Gosyen. Publishing. 2017.
[2]. IFRC. About Disaster Management. https://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/disaster-management/about-disaster-management/. 2021.
[3]. Meltzner A J., Sieh K., Abrams M., Agnew D C., Hudnut K W., Avouac J-P and Natawidjaja. D. H. Uplift and subsidence associated with the great Aceh-Andaman earthquake of 2004. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003891.2006.
[4]. Delouis. B., Nocquet. J-M., & Vallée. M. (2010). Slip distribution of the February 27, 2010 Mw = 8.8 Maule Earthquake, central Chile, from static and high-rate GPS, InSAR, and broadband teleseismic data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L17305, doi:10.1029/2010GL043899.
[5]. Imamura F., Boret S P., Suppasri A and Muhari A. Recent occurrences of serious tsunami damage and the future challenges of tsunami disaster risk reduction. Progress in Disaster Science Journal. Volume 1, May 2019.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdisas.2019.100009. 2019
[6]. Hamling I J., Hreinsdóttir S., Clark K., Elliott J., Liang C., Fielding E., Litchfield N., Villamor P., Wallace P., Wright T J., D’Anastasio E., Bannister S., Burbidge D., Denys P., Gentle P., Howarth J., Mueller C., Palmer N., Pearson C, Power W., Barnes P., Barrell D J A., Dissen R V., Langridge R., Little T., Nicol A., Pettinga J., Rowland J and Stirling M. Complex multifault rupture during the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake, New Zealand. Science.14 Apr 2017: Vol. 356, Issue 6334, eaam7194 DOI: 10.1126/science.aam7194. 2017.
[7]. Kurniawan T., Rohadi S., Sulastri R., Rachman A N and Sunardi B. Analisis Lokasi Rawan Rendah di Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah Dan Kota Palu-Donggala 28 September 2018. Conference of Geospatial Information Science and Engineering. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328551368_Analisis_Lokasi_Rawan_Rendah_di_Propinsi_Sulawesi_Tengah_dan_Kota_Palu_Berdasarkan_Letak_Sesar_dan_Data_ShakeMap_BMKG_Pasca_Gempabumi_Palu-Donggala_28_September_2018. 2018.
[8]. IFRC. What is a disaster?. https://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/disaster-management/about-disasters/what-is-a-disaster/. 2021.
[9]. Khan H., Vasilescu L G and Khan A. Disaster Management Cycle – A Theoretical Approach. Management & Marketing – Craiova. ISSN : 1841-2416. 2008.
[10]. Kusumasari B. Manajemen Bencana Dan Kapabilitas Pemerintah Lokal. Yogyakarta. Gava Media. 2014.
[11]. Carter W N. Disaster management (a disasater manager‘s handbook). Philipines. Asian development bank. 1992.
[12]. Kent R. Disaster Preparedness. Disaster Management Training Programme. (2nd ed.). United Nations Development Programme, DHA. 1994.
[13]. Comfort L K., Ko K and Zagorecki A. Coordination in Rapidly Evolving Disaster Response Systems. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 48 No. 3, November 2004 295-313. DOI: 10.1177/0002764204268987. 2004.
[14]. Phillips B D. Disaster Recovery. Second Edition. Taylor and Francis Group. Broken Sound Parkway. NW. 2016.
[15]. Leoni B. Mexico: Lessons from 1985 earthquake. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction – Regional Office for the Americas and the Caribbean (UNDRR AM). https://www.unisdr.org/archive/52756. 2017.
[16]. OCHA. Chile : Disaster Management Reference Handbook May 2017. https://reliefweb.int/report/chile/chile-disaster-management-reference-handbook-may-2017. 2017.
[17]. JMA. Earthquakes and Tsunamis (Observation and Disaster Mitigation). https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/books/jishintsunami/en/jishintsunami_en.pdf. 2019.
[18]. Silawati D A. 5 Negara dengan Sistem Penanggulangan Bencana Paling Baik di Dunia. https://www.idntimes.com/hype/fun-fact/dwi-ayu-silawati/5-negara-dengan-sistem-penanggulangan-bencana-c1c2/3. 2020.
[19]. Syugiarto. Sistem Penanggulangan Bencana Alam. https://issuu.com/syugiarto/docs/tugas_uts__sistem_penanggulangan_bencana_alam_. 2019).
[20]. George M W. The Elements of Library Research : What Every Student Needs to Know. Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400830411. 2008.
[21]. Rukajat A. Pendekatan Penelitian Kuantitatif: Quantitative Research Approach. Yogyakarta. Deepublish. 2018.
[22]. O’Brien and Marakas. Management System Information. New York. McGraw Hill. 2010
[23]. Hasanbasri M. Pendekatan Sistem Dalam Perencanaan Program Daerah. Jurnal Manajemen Pelayanan Kesehatan, vol. 10 no. 2, Juni 2007. https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/22423-ID-pendekatan-sistem-dalam-perencanaan-program-daerah.pdf. 2007
[24]. Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (Bappenas). Kerangka Pemikiran Reformasi Perencanaan dan Penganggaran. https://www.bappenas.go.id/files/3713/6508/2376/modul-i__20090814165601__0.pdf. 2015.
[25]. Leinbach T R. Indonesia. https://www.britannica.com/place/Indonesia. 2021.
[26]. Abbany Z. Fakta Seputar Cincin Api Pasifik, Daerah Rawan Gempa dan Letusan Gunung Api. https://www.dw.com/id/fakta-seputar-cincin-api-pasifik-daerah-rawan-gempa-dan-letusan-gunung-api/a-51988541. 2021.
[27]. Borrero J C. Field Survey of Northern Sumatra and Banda Aceh, Indonesia after the Tsunami and Earthquake of 26 December 2004. Seismological Research Letters, 76(3), 312–320. doi:10.1785/gssrl.76.3.312. 2005.
[28]. Doocy S., Rofi A., Moodie C., Spring E., Bradley S., Burnham G and Robinson C. Tsunami mortality in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization | February 2007, 85 (2). https://www.scielosp.org/article/ssm/content/raw/?resource_ssm_path=/media/assets/bwho/v85n4/a12v85n4.pdf. 2007.
[29]. Konca A O., Hjorleifsdottir V., Song T-R A., Avouac J-P., Helmberger D V., Ji C and Meltzner A. Rupture Kinematics of the 2005 Mw 8.6 Nias-Simeulue Earthquake from the Joint Inversion of Seismic and Geodetic Data. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 97(1A), S307–S322. doi:10.1785/0120050632. 2007
[30]. BBC News. Gempa kuat menguncang Nias Selatan, masyarakat panik. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/berita_indonesia/2016/04/160417_indonesia_nias_gempa. 2016
[31]. Rosyidi S AP., Taha M R., Lesmana S B., Wintolo J and Adi A D. Some Lessons from Yogyakarta Earthquake of May 27, 2006. International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering. 32.
https://scholarsmine.mst.edu/icchge/6icchge/session03/32. 2008.
[32]. International Recovery Platform. The Yogyakarta and Central Java Earthquake 2006. Recovery Status Report, Volume I. https://www.recoveryplatform.org/assets/publication/RecoveryStatusReport/RECOVERY%20STATUS%20REPORT%20YOGYAKARTA%202009-1.pdf. 2009
[33]. Bappenas. Preliminary Damage and Loss Assessment, Yogyakarta and Central Java Natural Disaster: A Joint Report of BAPPENAS, the Provincial and Local Governments of D.I. Yogyakarta, the Provincial and Local Governments of Central Java, and International Partners. The 15th Meeting of the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI) Jakarta, 14 June 2006, Jakarta, 140 p. 2006.
[34]. Nurwihastuti D W., Sartohadi J., Mardiatno D., Nehren U and Restu. Undertanding of Earthquake Damage PatternThrough Geomorphological Approach : A Case Study of 2006 Erathquake in Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2, 61-70. https://www.scirp.org/html/49855.html?pagespeed=noscript&pagespeed=noscript. 2014
[35]. Gusman A R., Tanioka Y., Kobayashi T., Latief H and Pandoe W. Slip distribution of the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake inferred from tsunami waveforms and InSAR data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115(B12). doi:10.1029/2010jb007565. 2010
[36]. Borrero J C., Weiss R., Okal E A., Hidayat R., Suranto., Arcas D., Titov V V. The tsunami of 2007 September 12, Bengkulu province, Sumatra, Indonesia: post-tsunami field survey and numerical modelling. Geophysical Journal International, Volume 178, Issue 1, July 2009, Pages 180–194. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.04058.x. 2009
[37]. McCloskey J., Lange D., Tilmann F., Nalbant S S., Bell A F., Natawidjaja D H and Rietbrock A. The September 2009 Padang earthquake. Nature Geoscience, 3(2), 70–71. doi:10.1038/ngeo753. 2010
[38]. Fachri F and Yulianto A., Mengenang Gempa Padang 11 Tahun Lalu. https://www.republika.co.id/berita/qhh45t396/mengenang-gempa-padang-11-tahun-lalu#:~:text=Gempa%20bumi%20dengan%20kekuatan%207,puluhan%20bangunan%20di%20Kota%20Padang. 2020
[39]. Hill E M., Borrero J C., Huang Z., Qiu Q., Banerjee P., Natawidjaja D H., Elosegui P., Fritz H M., Suwargadi B W., Pranantyo I R., Li L., Macpherson K A., Skanavis V., Synolakis C E and Sieh K. The 2010 Mw 7.8 Mentawai earthquake: Very shallow source of a rare tsunami earthquake determined from tsunami field survey and near-field GPS data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 117(B6), n/a–n/a. doi:10.1029/2012jb009159. 2012
[40]. Newman A V., Hayes G., Wei Y and Convers J. The 25 October 2010 Mentawai tsunami earthquake, from real-time discriminants, finite-fault rupture, and tsunami excitation. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(5), n/a–n/a. doi:10.1029/2010gl046498. 2011
[41]. Satriano C., Kiraly E., Bernard P and Vilotte J-P. The 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra earthquake: Evidence of westward sequential seismic ruptures associated to the reactivation of a N-S ocean fabric. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(15). doi:10.1029/2012gl052387. 2012
[42]. Putra L M and Wibawa S W. Inilah Mengapa Gempa Sumatera 2012 Tidak Semematikan 2004. https://sains.kompas.com/read/2017/09/25/170600323/inilah-mengapa-gempa-sumatera-2012-tidak-semematikan-2004?page=all. 2017.
[43]. Wibowo S B., Hadmoko D S., Isnaeni Y., Farda N M., Putri A F S., Nurani I W and Supangkat S H. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Ground Deformation Due to 2018 Lombok Earthquake Series. Remote Sens. 13, 2222. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13112222. 2021.
[44]. Zulfakriza Z. Melihat Kembali Gempa Lombok 2018 dan Sejarah Kegempaannya. https://regional.kompas.com/read/2018/09/23/11321551/melihat-kembali-gempa-lombok-2018-dan-sejarah-kegempaannya?page=all. 2018.
[45]. Socquet A., Hollingsworth J., Pathier E and Bouchon M. Evidence of supershear during the 2018 magnitude 7.5 Palu earthquake from space geodesy. Nat. Geosci. 12, 192–199 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0296-0. 2019.
[46]. Bao H., Ampuero J-P., Meng L., Fielding E J., Liang C., Milliner C W D., Feng T and Huang H. Early and persistent supershear rupture of the 2018 magnitude 7.5 Palu earthquake. Nat. Geosci. 12, 200–205 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0297-z. 2019.
[47]. Hadi S and Kurniawati E. Jumlah Korban Tewas Terkini Gempa dan Tsunami Palu 2.113 Orang. https://nasional.tempo.co/read/1138400/jumlah-korban-tewas-terkini-gempa-dan-tsunami-palu-2-113-orang. 2018
[48]. Firdaus F. Gempa 6,4 SR Guncang Situbondo 11 Oktober 2018, Terasa di Bali. https://tirto.id/gempa-64-sr-guncang-situbondo-11-oktober-2018-terasa-di-bali-c58W. 2018.
[49]. Yuliatmoko R S and Kurniawan T. Analysis of Stress Drop Variations in Fault and Subduction Zones of Maluku and Halmahera Earthquakes in 2019. Jurnal Penelitian Fisika dan Aplikasinya (JPFA). 2019; 9(2): 152- 162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26740/jpfa.v9n2.p152-162. 2019.
[50]. Wallansha R. Ulasan Guncangan Tanah Akibat Gempa Mamuju Sulawesi Barat 15 Januari 2021. Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika. https://www.bmkg.go.id/berita/?p=ulasan-guncangan-tanah-akibat-gempa-mamuju-sulawesi-barat-15-januari-2021&lang=ID&s=detil. 2021
[51]. Himawan., Pranita E., Bramasta D B., Arief T M V., Dewi B K and Hardiyanto S.
5 Fakta Gempa di Mamuju dan Majene, dari Dampak Kerusakan hingga Gempa Susulan. https://www.kompas.com/tren/read/2021/01/15/155111865/5-fakta-gempa-di-mamuju-dan-majene-dari-dampak-kerusakan-hingga-gempa?page=all. 2021.
[52]. BMKG. Katalog Gempa Bumi Signifikan dan Dirasakan 1821 – 2018. Pusat Gempa Bumi dan Tsunami BMKG 2019. https://cdn.bmkg.go.id/Web/Katalog-Gempabumi-Signifikan-dan-Merusak-1821-2018.pdf. 2019
[53]. Banjarnahor D. Refleksi 2020: Lebih Dari 8.000 Gempa Terjadi di Indonesia. https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/news/20201230111654-4-212504/refleksi-2020-lebih-dari-8000-gempa-terjadi-di-indonesia. 2020.
[54]. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB). Undang – Undang Nomor 24 Tahun 2007 Tentang Penanggulangan Bencana. https://bnpb.go.id/ppid/file/UU_24_2007.pdf. 2007
[55]. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB). Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 21 Tahun 2008 Tentang Penyelenggaraan Penanggulangan Bencana. https://bnpb.go.id/ppid/file/PP_No._21_Th_2008.pdf. 2008
[56]. Jaringan Dokumentasi dan Informasi Hukum (JDIH) Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG). Peraturan Presiden Nomor 93 Tahun 2019 Tentang Penguatan dan Pengembangan Sistem Informasi Gempa Bumi dan Peringatan Dini Tsunami. http://jdih.bmkg.go.id/vifiles/PENGUATAN%20DAN%20PENGEMBANGAN%20SISTEM%20INFORMASI%20GEMPA%20BUMI%20DAN%20PERINGATAN%20DINI%20TSUNAMI.PDF. 2019
[57]. Pancasilawan R., Utami S B., Sumaryana A., Ismanto S U and Rosmalasari D. Mitigation of Disaster Risk Reduction In Pangandaran Regency. Sosiohumaniora - Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora Vol. 22, No. 2, July 2020: 214 – 222. https://jurnal.unpad.ac.id/sosiohumaniora/article/view/25774/13716. 2020
[58]. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB). Siaga Bencana Gempa Bumi. https://www.bnpb.go.id/siaga-bencana/siaga-bencana-gempa-bumi. 2020
[59]. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB). Siaga Bencana Tsunami. https://www.bnpb.go.id/siaga-bencana/siaga-bencana-tsunami. 2020
[60]. Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT). Secara Daring, BPPT Luncuran InaTEWS Buoy di Perairan Gunung Anak Krakatau. https://bppt.go.id/layanan-informasi-publik/4355-secara-daring-bppt-luncuran-inatews-buoy-di-perairan-gunung-anak-krakatau. 2021
[61]. International Federation Red Cross (IFRC). Disaster preparedness. https://media.ifrc.org/ifrc/what-we-do/disaster-and-crisis-management/disaster-preparedness/. 2021
[62]. Erlita., Mahendra D and Batu A M R L. Buku Materi Pembelajaran Manajemen Gawat Darurat Dan Bencana. BMP.UKI :EDA-025-MGDD-PK-III-2019. http://repository.uki.ac.id/2714/1/BUKUMATERIPEMBELAJARANMANAJEMENGAWATDARURAT.pdf. 2019
[63]. Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG). Antisipasi Gempa Bumi. https://www.bmkg.go.id/gempabumi/antisipasi-gempabumi.bmkg. 2021
[64]. Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG). Pedoman Pelayanan Peringatan Dini Tsunami. https://www.gitews.org/tsunami-kit/id/E3/perangkat/Pedoman%20Pelayanan%20Peringatan%20Dini%20Tsunami%20InaTEWS%20(2).pdf. 2012
[65]. Carolina M. Kelemahan – Kelemahan Penanggulangan Bencana Alam di Indonesia. Pusat Kajian Anggaran Badan Keahlian DPR RI. Vol III, Edisi 18, September 2018. https://berkas.dpr.go.id/puskajianggaran/buletin-apbn/public-file/buletin-apbn-public-67.pdf. 2018.
Abstract viewed = 999 times
PDF downloaded = 440 times